Gusti Z Anshari, dkk.
Roles of government, scientists and NPOs in the development of Indonesia Lake Vision
Oleh: Gusti Z Anshari1,2 , Haryatiningsih Moedjodo1, Andrijanto1,3 Yusuf Suharso1
1 Yayasan Danau Indonesia (YDI), Jl. Flamboyan Raya 17 Depok II Tengah, 16411 Jawa Barat, Indonesia Email: email@example.com
3Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Tanjungpura, Pontianak, Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia
Perum Jasa Tirta II (PJT-II), West Java, Indonesia
Makalah disajikan pada 11TH WORLD LAKES CONFERENCE NAIROBI, KENYA, 31 OCTOBER TO 4TH NOVEMBER 2005
Indonesia has a lot of lakes, which are distributed from lowlands to top mountains. It is estimated that the total number of lakes in Indonesia is more than 500. Indonesian lakes are very important for community livelihoods, biodiversity protection and development, research, and environmental services. In general, most Indonesian lakes are under rapid degradation. Major threats on Indonesian lakes are water pollution, habitat destruction, species extinction, and livelihood decline that put much greater pressure on lake resources. This problem is deeply rooted in the present government policies on lake management. A rapid population growth is also associated with the decline of lake resources.
A group of stakeholders, including the government, scientists, national and international NGOs, have paid major concerns on developing sustainable management of lakes. Indonesia Lake Forum and Indonesia Lake Foundation (Yayasan Danau Indonesia, YDI) have been established, in 2003 and 2004 respectively. In this phase, in collaboration with ILEC, we carried out a national workshop to disseminate the translated World Lake Vision.
The World Lake Vision has been translated into Indonesian language by YDI in collaboration with the Ministry of Environment through a grant from LakeNet. We also developed a preliminary version of a database on Indonesia lakes, identified specific problems, and encouraged cooperative work among stakeholders that have major concerns or authority on the development of sustainable lake management. Stakeholder participation is absolutely necessary in order to create an inspired vision and effective missions.
Key words: Indonesia Lake Vision Development
Indonesia has hundreds of lakes, which are important for livelihoods, freshwater supplies, agriculture, fishery, power generation, biodiversity, research and environmental services. To name a few, Indonesia famous lakes are Danau (lake) Sentani, Danau Toba, Danau Singkarak, Danau Maninjau, Danau Kerinci, Danau Tempe, Danau Limboto, Danau Poso, Danau Tondano, Danau Batur, Danau Kelimutu, Danau Sentarum, Danau Semayang, Danau Jempang, and Danau Melinau. In general, these lakes have important functions as major sources of freshwater, and fishery. The beauty of the lakes is also important to the tourism industry. In addition, several lakes, such as Danau Tondano, Singkarak and Maninjau, are used to generate hydropower. In Kalimantan, floodplain lakes, such as Danau Sentarum and Semayang, are important for water transportation, flood control, and fish breeding. In addition to natural lakes, Indonesia has built several dams in order to maintain freshwater supplies, to provide irrigation water, and to generate power. Large dams are mainly found in Java. To mention a few, these include Cirata, Jatiluhur, Saguling, and Sutami.
In general, both natural lakes and dams in Indonesia suffer from anthropogenic impacts. These include erosion and sedimentation, pollution, eutrophication, timber extraction in the catchment areas, land use conversion, aquaculture and over-fishing (Table 1). For example, the development of aquaculture has had a strong impact on nutrient enrichment in Saguling Dam. In 1995, the total organic sediment from aquaculture was 1,830 tons with about 268 tons N and 122 tons P (Kartamiharja, 1995). At Sutami Dam, the average sedimentation rate from 2000-2005 was 1.1 million m3/yr. High sedimentation rates are also common at Lake Tondano, and this problem has lowered the depths of the lake (Figure 1).
At forested lakes, for example Danau Sentarum National Park, illegal logging has become a major problem since 1998, after the collapse of President Suharto’s regime. A new political condition has created more opportunities and also less control that drives local communities in cooperation with timber tycoons from Malaysia to illegally cut the forest in frontier areas. Over-fishing, poison, the use of electric shock, aquaculture, pollution, eutrophication, and high population pressures have also caused fish decline in many lakes.
In most cases, management plans that would ensure the conservation and sustainable use of lake resources are still lacking, or if it does exist, the plan is not well implemented. In addition, poor implementation of management plan drives lake users to put greater pressure on lake resources. Lake users are varied, and many have different interests and views on how to use lake resources. Table 2 describes an example of different interests, roles, functions, and problems on the use of natural resources in Danau Sentarum National Park. The most common problem is lack of expertise, and good cooperation and collaboration. Among government groups, cooperation and collaboration are difficult to achieve because the authority of this protected area is solely under the central government (i.e. the Department of Forestry). In general, in cases of non-protected lakes, both local and regional governments have paid little attention to lake management, particularly regarding the conservation of lake resources.
In practice, both protected and non-protected lakes are barely managed by the authority. It is essential to mention that NGOs and local communities have a lot of worries about the sustainable use of lakes. As a matter of facts, both NGOs and local communities do not have legal power to take care of lakes.
Although local communities have potentials to conserve lake resources, without formal recognition on community rights many lakes appear to be open access (Anshari et al., 2005). As resource becomes scarce, and local communities have lost their institutional mechanisms to enforce the long term view on the use of lake resources. Such condition causes rapid destruction of many Indonesia lakes. Due to the natures of the problem are too varied, finding quick solution is almost mission impossible to achieve in short term. Hence, from management point of view, it is urgent to develop Indonesia Lake Vision that could be nationally implemented in both natural lakes and man-made reservoirs.
Developing Indonesia Lake Vision
The development of the Indonesia Lake Vision is based on inputs from many stakeholders. These include local communities, NGOs, scientists and governments. In 2003, the first national workshop on Indonesia lake conservation was conducted in Jakarta. This meeting was administered by the Ministry of Environment in collaboration with NGOs (e.g. LakeNet), and attended by 189 participants, who came from governments, NPOs, private sector, and scientists. The purposes of this meeting were to build commitments on sustainable use of lake resources, to develop Indonesia Lake Vision, and to establish national networking on lake management. The International Lake Environment Committee (ILEC) presented the World Lake Vision in this workshop. The Indonesia Lake Forum was formed in order to accommodate the flow of communication among stakeholders (Radiansyah et al., 2003). At present, a yahoo mailing-list group called ‘Indolakes’ has been created and actively facilitating discussions on lake issues.
In the following year, a second workshop on sustainable lake management was again held in Jakarta. This meeting was sponsored by ILEC. The number of participants, who came from governments, NPOs, private sector, and scientists, were more than 100 persons. Presentations came from ILEC, Lake Laguna Development Authority, Philippines, Lake Biwa Research Institute, Kosho Net, The University of Shiga Prefecture in Japan, Wetlands International, LakeNet, as well as the Ministry of Environment, the Department of Forestry (i.e. the Directorate General of Forest Protection and Nature Conservation), and Indonesia Science Institute. At the end of the workshop, all participants agreed to a declaration on sustainable lake management, and to commit on fulfilling the following tasks:
- to develop Indonesia Lake Vision,
- to accomplish the mission on the practice of sustainable lake management
- to increase capacity in the implementation of sustainable lake management schemes
- to develop cooperation and collaboration among regional, national and international stakeholders
Local views on how to practice sustainable lake management schemes were sought from relevant stakeholders. Currently, most information is not yet directly sourced from local communities. This occurs because the cost of collecting first hand information from local communities is very expensive. In many cases, the location of lakes is quite remote. However, views submitted by local stakeholders, such as local governments and NPOs, are well represented, and in line with the needs of local communities.
For local communities, lakes are important places to live and are major sources of livelihood security. When lakes are inhabited by local communities for centuries, there are strong interactions between local communities and lake ecosystems. For example, local communities in Danau Sentarum have built local institutions that govern the use of lake resources according to traditional or customary laws (Anshari et al., 2005). In many other lakes, local stakeholders have paid great concerns on the sustainability of lake resource uses. As the main direct user, local communities should be given rights to exercise community based lake management, preferably with some assistance from governments and NPOs.
It is important to note that each lake has different characters and specific needs. As a result, the lake vision could not be singly developed, without full participation of relevant stakeholders at local level. Having realized the variety of problems on lake management, the Indonesia Lake Forum, and Yayasan Danau Indonesia (YDI) will focus on public awareness campaign, capacity building, and finding alternative income generating activities that would help local communities to reduce human impacts on lake resources.
In the last few years, governments, NPOs, and scientists have put more effort to address the problems on the sustainable use of lake resources. The role and functions of local communities in the management of lakes are absolutely essential in order to accomplish the missions of sustainable lake management. More participatory access will be availed to local communities, who are directly dependent upon lake resources, to take part in the development of sustainable lake management in Indonesia. It is a great hope that the governments, local communities, and NPOs would build strong cooperation and collaboration in order to formulate Indonesia Lake Vision.
The authors are fully grateful to Dibjo Sartono from Wetlands International, and Andrijanto from PJT II (Dam Jatiluhur), who have contributed valuable inputs to this paper. Satoru Matsumoto and Ms Kimura from ILEC are sincerely thanked for providing opportunity, and full financial support to present this paper on World Lake Conference 11st in Nairobi, Kenya, and arranging logistic and accommodation matters.
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